Recommended Dose in Prenatal Vitamins

If you’re facing deficiency of some nutrition when you’re in pregnancy, you should be aware of choosing best prenatal vitamins in order to born a healthy baby.

You’d like to know the following dose recommended by authority, e.g. FDA, before you take any supplement. But some of the nutrients we don’t have the RDA values at this moment.
best prenatal vitamins
Vitamin A
Any excessive dose of vitamin A will cause a lot of trouble for pregnant women, for example, birth defects such as heart defects, cleft palate and hydrocephalus. The liver, bone, nervous system and skin will be damaged if intake a much higher dose of vitamin A.
To reduce the risk of above mentioned defects, pregnant women should avoid any prenatal vitamins which may contain more than 5,000 IU preformed vitamin A, suggested by the March of Dimes. It said that any separated vitamin A supplement exceeded this dosage should not be consumed by pregnant women and reduce the consumption of liver or other fortified foods which are enrich of preformed vitamin A. But vitamin A from fruits or vegetables existed as beta-carotene is not included.

Vitamin B-1 (Thiamin) supports human’s nervous system.
The RDA for pregnant/lactating women is 1.4 mg per day. UL value is not established at this moment.

Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) supports the skin and vision function.
RDA value for pregnant women is 1.4 mg, for lactating women is 1.6 mg per day. UL value is not established right now.

Vitamin B-3 (Niacin) helps the function of releasing energy from carbohydrates.
The RDA value is 18 mg for pregnant women, and 17 mg for lactating women.

Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) plays important role in metabolism and immune/nervous system.
The RDA value is 1.9 mg and 2.0 mg for lactating women.

Vitamin B-9 (Folate) is very important for pregnant women, and if you plan to conceive.
The RDA value is 600 mcg for pregnant women, 500 mcg for lactating women.

Vitamin B-12 supports the function of building blood cells.
The RDA value is 2.6 mcg for pregnant women, 2.8 mcg for lactating women.
UL value is not established at this moment.

Vitamin C is an essential for blood vessel walls and bones.
The RDA value is 80 mg for pregnant women with eighteen years and younger, and 85 mg when nineteen years or older. For lactating women, 115 mg is suggested for eighteen years and younger, 120 mg for nineteen years or older.
The UL value is setup for adult only, 2,000 mg for 19 years and older.

Chromium supports the regulation of blood sugar in human’s body.
For pregnant women, it suggests to take 29 mcg for eighteen years or younger, 30 mcg for nineteen and older.
44 mcg is for lactating women when eighteen or younger, 45 mcg when nineteen or older.
No UL value is established at this moment. But if you take in excessive dose may increase the risk of damage to kidney or other organs.

Copper is one essential for skin pigment and connective tissue.
The RDA value for pregnant women is 1,000 mcg, 1,300 mcg for lactating women.
The UL value is established for adults only, 10,000 mcg for nineteen years and older.

Iodine controls the thyroid hormones producing, either the deficiency of it will cause low thyroid activity, or the intake in over dose will cause hypothyroidism. 3 cases of congenital hypothyroidism in infants reported due to high dose iodine supplement (11 times of UL value, and 57 times of RDA) taken by their mothers. Contrastly, if the mothers are deficient of iodine that will cause a brain development problem in their offspring. In U.S. it was reported in May 2014, that about one-third of pregnant women are marginally iodine deficient. And it was advised that pregnant women need to take a supplement containing 150 mcg iodine (from 197 mcg of potassium iodide) from a statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Iron, it leads to anemia if deficient in pregnant women. The RDA value for pregnant women is 27mg.
The RDA is 10 mg for lactating women 18 years and younger. 9 mg when she is 19 and older.

Magnesium is an assistant of human’s nerve system and metabolism.
It suggested for pregnant women with 400 mg if they’re 18 years or younger, it’s 350 mg if 19 or older, 360 mg if 31 or older.
The RDA for lactating women, it’s 360 mg when they’re 18 years or younger, 310 mg when they’re 19 to 30, 320 mg when they’re equal or older than 31.

Manganese play roles in metabolism and bone formation.
The RDA for prenatal women is 2.0 mg daily;
For lactating women need 2.6 mg daily.
It will cause neurological side effects if intake too much.

Molybdenum is a part of multiple enzymes inside of the human’s body.
The recommended dose of molybdenum for pregnant women or lactating women is 50 mcg daily.

Selenium is needed for body’s antioxidant system.
The RDA for pregnant women is 60 mcg;
For nursing women it’s 70 mcg daily.

Zinc is working for sperm production, brain functionalities and wound healing.
The RDA for pregnant women, for 18 years or younger is 14 mg daily, and 11 mg when they’re 19 years and older.
The RDA for lactating women is 14 mg when they’re 18 years and younger, 12 mg when they’re 19 years and older.

For the nutrients of vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, and the mineral of calcium, we currently don’t have the specific recommendation dose for prenatal women, only have the standard for adult.

Be careful when you’re in pregnancy, an eutrophy daily food will help both of the mother and fetus. If you cannot ensure your health dietary, you may need a selective prenatal vitamins instead.

Folate – An Essential in Prenatal Vitamins

Folate, also known as folic acid, vitamin B9, plays a key role in cell division in human body. It is an important essential in prenatal vitamins. In some researches, we found it reduce the risk of heart disease, and it is helpful lessen the incidence rate of some cancers.

folate-prenatal vitaminsYou can find the folate from dark green leafy vegetables, and oranges. These are natural good source of folate, but the synthetic source of folic acid seems has a twice absorption and a more bioavailability as well as the natural source folate.

There are two new synthetic source of folate products, Metafolin and Quatrefolic were accepted by FDA individually in 2001 and 2010. With stabilized form in Metafolin (calcium salt, Metafolin® is a registered trademark of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) and Quatrefolic (glucosamine salt, Quatrefolic® is a registered trademark of Gnosis S.p.A. Corporation), they have an active compound, called L-5-methylfolate, which is same created in the body as folate and folic acid does. People with common genetic mutations were suggested to take these new forms, as it was proved to have more effectiveness than folic acid in a short term.

Benefits for pregnant women
It is helpful to reduce the risk of spina bifida in fetus if folate consumed in prenatal vitamins by pregnant women. Folate is also proved to lessen the occurrence of leukemia and some other defects among infants.

A research from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Oslo announced that, the women took folic acid (400 mcg per day) from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after their pregnancy had a 39% lower risk of autistic disorder in children, compared to the children whose mothers didn’t have any folic acid supplement.

But many pregnancies are unplanned, it is difficult to recommend a folic acid supplement before conception. Most of time the neural tube defects may have already occurred, because the average of first antenatal visit normally is 9 weeks.

Since 1998, folic acid were fortificated in cereal grains mandatorily and as a result, there is less than 1% of people in Americans have folate deficiency. Then over 50 countries around the world have followed this mandatory fortification with folic acid.

Recommended dose
As a result, the RDAs doses are based on the regular food sources, if you are taking folic acid in prenatal vitamins or fortificated food, which are twice absorbs in the body, you have to take 1/2 following RDAs:

For Children 1 – 3 years old: 150 mcg
Children 4 – 8 years old: 200 mcg
Children 9 – 13 years old: 300 mcg
Over 14 years old: 400 mcg
Pregnant women: 600 mcg
Lactating women: 500 mcg

The ULs of folate (total amount from fortified food and supplements):
For Children 1 – 3 years old: 300 mcg
Children 4 – 8 years old: 400 mcg
Children 9 – 13 years old: 600 mcg
Children 14 – 18 years old: 800 mcg
Individual over 19 years old: 1,000 mcg

Concerns
There are increasing concerns for the folic acid intake 1000 mcg per day from supplement, associated with a more than doubling risk of prostate cancer. Meanwhile, the folate from natural sources was not found any risk raised.

Although folate may reduce the incidence rate of cancer, e.g. the notably colorectal cancer, there are some concerns about the exceed folic acid from supplements and fortificated foods may increase the risk of cancerous tumors or pre-cancerous. For example, it was observed that the risk of colorectal cancer was increased after the country began to fortify the wheat flour with folic acid in Chile and other countries in 2009.

But according to a recent study in U.S. (2011), there was no significant association found between the colorectal cancer and folic acid serving. In contrast, this study found a 19% reducing in the risk of colon cancer comparing the people took the highest dose of folic acid (including both of the natural folate and folic acid) to those with the lowest dose intake.